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Types of CNC Machine Control Systems

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Lately, the scene in the fabricator industry has dramatically shifted towards betterment, all courtesy of the advancing technology of the world. However, the biggest advancement so far has to be the introduction and integration of CNC or Computer Numerical Control systems to the fabricator machines (press brake, laser cutting, shearing machines, punching press, and so on).

With the help of CNC Machine Control Systems, the productivity and quality of work for these machines have gone up by leagues. Therefore, if you have not already updated your machines to CNC integration, it is high time you do so.

On that note, today we will be taking a small initiative to understand these CNC control systems a bit better. Therefore, we will be looking at and understanding the different types of CNC Control Systems out there in the market. If you are ready to increase your knowledge about the fabricator machines, let us begin right away.

About CNC Control Systems

Before we delve deeper into the main topic, let us first understand what CNC Control Systems are. CNC or Computer Numerical Control system is a type of technology that helps feed information into a manufacturing machine to inform it about what it has to do. It is a means to automate these manufacturing machines with software embedded microcomputers that are attached to these machines.

Therefore, for each product that the machine makes, you need to input a custom program for it. The language used for this is a standard international language called the G-code. The programming allows the machine to know specific data about how the product is supposed to be. With the data, the machine can make exactly what you want.

The reason why Accurl’s CNC control systems were a game-changer for the manufacturing industry is that:

  • Efforts were reduced. Machine automation would handle the entire process of shaping the materials without any physical labor from workers.
  • The results were far more precise than manual products with accuracy and attention to detail. Moreover, the results are consistent no matter how many products you make.
  • It saves a lot of time, effort, and costs. Not to mention, the latest versions of the machines are more environmentally conscious. With the added advantage of the CNC control systems, the entire process became more beneficial in all manner.

Types of CNC Control Systems

Now that we understand what CNC control systems are and why they are so beneficial, we will now move on to understanding the different types of CNC control systems that are out there.

Generally, CNC control systems can be divided based on the following factors:

  • Number of axes
  • Motion type
  • Control loop

Let us elaborate on this further.

Number of Axes

Every manufacturing machine, such as Accurl’s wide range of products, has axes with which the tools move over the material to give them the desired effect, whether that is bending, shearing, cutting, or pressing. CNC control systems can be based on the number of axes that a machine has. There can be the following number of axes:

  • Two axes

In these types of CNC control systems, you get only two axes — the X and Z axes.

  • Two and a half axes

In this type, you get three axes — the X-axis, Y-axis, and a third axis. However, though it may be a three axes system, the axes do not move in a 3D way. That’s why the name — 2.5 axes.

  • Three axes

Similar to 2.5 axes, this type has three axes — X, Y, and Z, where Z helps move in a 3D way. These types of CNC control machines are the most popular type. The bed length of the machines with such systems matters a lot as the bed length is directly proportional to increasing costs.

  • Four axes

This type of system has four axes — X, Y, Z, and an additional rotation on a B-axis. Therefore, a 4 axes system is simply a 3 axes system with an additional B axis, which allows the axes to move both vertically and horizontally.

  • Five axes

The same applies for this kind as a 5 axis system is nothing but a three-axis system with additional rotation in the Z and Y direction. These additional axes are called the A and B axes respectively.

Motion Type

The next classification of CNC control systems is based on their motion type. Let us take a look.

  • Point-to-Point system

In this kind of machine, the tools are static, as in they are put in a position to complete their task. Once the task is complete, it retracts. The material is then moved to the next position of work for the tool to work again.

  • Contouring system

Contouring systems on the other hand have a tool that moves and ‘contours’ on the material to create your desired detail or design. Here, the material is laid still and the tool does the job of moving all over the material.

Control Loop

CNC Control Systems can also be classified based on the control loop. Here are the different types of CNC Control Machines under this category:

  • Open Loop

In these kinds of systems, the controller is responsible for converting the information from the input and transferring them to the servo amplifiers. Because there is no scope of feedback here, there might be inaccuracies.

  • Closed Loop

As the name suggests, in this system the CNC controller gets feedback from the machine regarding the process and the programmed input due to its closed loop. Here the CNC systems work on a servomechanism with a closed-loop principle.

The feedback is read either through a digital system or an analog one.  These are excellent systems as they have the ability to accurately read operation conditions, provide accurate feedback, and make the necessary adjustments.


Therefore, that is all there is to know about CNC control systems and their different types. Knowing the different equipment that your business invests in allows you to make the right decisions when it comes to purchasing and maintenance.

On that topic, make sure that you buy from trusted producers such as Accurl who has years of experience and reputation in this field. After all, your machine and its systems are all a long-term investment for the development of your business.

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